Thursday, November 16, 2017

More about life-like properties found in very simple system

As I told in the previous posting, I encountered in FB a link to a rather interesting article by physicists working in Emory University. The title of the popular article was " Physicists show how lifeless particles can become 'life-like' by switching behaviors" (see this). The article " Emergent bi-stability and Switching in a Nonequilibrium Crystal by Guram Gogia and Justin Burton is published in PRL and can be found in ArXiv (see this). Justin Burton leads a physics group working at Emory University. Guram Gogia who made the discovery is her student.

The development of TGD inspired model for the finding led to a dramatic progress in the TGD inspired models for biocontrol and prebiotic evolution so that an extended version of the earlier posting is in order.

The physicists working in Emory University have made very interesting discovery. The very simple system studied exhibits what authors call self-organized bi-stability making phase transitions between crystal-like and gas-like phases. The expectation was that only single stable state would appear. Neuron groups can also have collective bi-stability (periodic synchronous firing). Neurons are however themselves bi-stable systems: now the particles are plastic balls and are not bi-stable. One could say that the system exhibits life-like properties. The most remarkable life-like property is metabolism required by the sequence of phase transitions involving dissipation.

Where does the metabolic energy come from? The proposal that stochastic resonance feeds the needed metabolic energy leaves open its source. The resemblance with living cells suggests that the attempt to interpret the findings solely in terms of non-equilibrium thermodynamics might miss something essential - the metabolism.

TGD provides a general model for living systems relying on the notion of magnetic body (MB), hierarchy of Planck constants heff=n× h labelling phases of ordinary matter identifiable as dark matter, and the realization of control and communication signals between MB and biological body using dark photons. Bio-photons would result in the transformation of dark photons to ordinary photons and EEG would rely on dark cyclotron photons and generalized Josephson photons from cell membrane (also bio-photons would relate to them). Bose Einstein condensates of dark variants of biologically important ions or their Cooper pairs are also in a central role. The assumption hgr=heff, where hgr is so called gravitational Planck constant, implies that the energy spectrum of dark cyclotron photons is universal (no dependence on the mass of ion) and naturally in visible and UV range characterizing molecular transition energies.

One can develop a detailed TGD inspired model for the findings leading to an identification of new control tools of MB (MB). Quantum criticality makes it possible for MB can adapt to the biological body (BB) so that it can generated cyclotron frequencies, which correspond to the characteristic frequencies of BB: forced oscillations serve as a control tool of MB. Also the analogs of Alfwen waves identifiable as analogs of string vibrations allow to control the systems at the nodes of the flux tube network.

In the system studied the crystal-like phase corresponds to a connected flux tube network associated having plastic balls as nodes, and gas-like phase to a totally disconnected network with connecting flux tube pairs split into flux loops. That freezing would require energy (going to the magnetic energy of flux tube network in heff increasing phase transition) does not conform with the thermodynamics of classical systems. That superfluid Helium has similar strange feature at low enough temperatures suggests that the system is indeed quantal. Cyclotron Bose-Einstein (BE) condensates of Cooper pairs of Ar+ ions, protons, and electrons are proposed to be relevant. Encouragingly, the ratio of frequencies for horizontal and vertical oscillations frequencies of crystal-like structure is equal to the ratio of cyclotron frequencies for Ar+ and proton.

One of the key challenges is to identify the the prebiotic source of metabolic energy. The sequences of dark protons identifiable as dark nuclei give in TGD framework rise to analogs of DNA, RNA, tRNA, and amino-acids. The model predicts the degeneracies of vertebrate genetic code correctly. In TGD based model for "cold fusion" as dark nucleosynthesis (DNS) serving as a predecessor of ordinary nucleosynthesis dark nuclei transform to ordinary nuclei liberating almost all nuclear binding energy. Dark analogs of DNA, RNA, tRNA, and amino-acids would therefore provide also the sought for prebiotic source of metabolic energy in the system studied: the egg-or-hen problem about whether the genes or metabolism came first, would be resolved.

See the updated article Life-like properties observed in a very simple system or the chapter of "TGD based view about living matter and remote mental interactions" with the same title.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Sunday, November 05, 2017

Life-like properties observed in a very simple system

The physicists working in Emory University have made very interesting discovery decribed in a popular article and in more technical article by the Guran Gogia and Justin Burton.

The very simple system studied exhibits what authors call self-organized bistability making phase transitions between crystal like and liquid like states. The expectation was that only single stable state would appear. Neuron groups can also have collective bistability (periodic synchronous firing). Neurons are however themselves bistable systems: now the particles are plastic balls and are not bistable. One could say that the system exhibits life-like properties. The most remarkable life-like property is metabolism required by the sequence of phase transitions involving dissipation. Where does the metabolic energy come from?

Why the finding is interesting from TGD point of view is that TGD provides a general model for living systems, a general quantal interpretation of metabolism, and suggests also new sources of metabolic energy. The system also has features bringing in mind living cell so that the attempt to interpret the findings solely in terms of non-equilibrium thermodynamics might miss something essential. TGD based model forces to study seriously the possibility that dark nucleosynthesis could be a source of metabolic energy in living matter.

See the updated article Life-like properties observed in a very simple system or the chapter of "TGD based view about living matter and remote mental interactions" with the same title.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Friday, November 03, 2017

Mysteriously disappearing valence electrons of rare Earth metals and hierarchy of Planck constants

The evidence for the hierarchy of Planck constants heff/h=n labelling dark matter as phases with non-standard value of Planck constant is accumulating.

The latest piece of evidence comes from the well-known mystery (not to me until now!) related to rare Earth metals. Some valence electrons of these atoms mystically "disappear" when the atom is heated. This transition is knonw as Lifshitz transition. The popular article Where did those electrons go? Decades-old mystery solved claims that the mystery of disappearing valence electrons is finally resolved. The popular article is inspired by the article Lifshitz transition from valence fluctuations in YbAl3 by Chatterjee et al published in Nature Communications.

Dark matter and hierarchy of Planck constants

The mysterious disappearance of valence electrons brings in mind dark atoms with Planck constant heff=n×h. Dark matter corresponds in TGD Universe to a hierarchy with levels labelled by the value of heff. One prediction is that the binding energy of dark atom is proportional to 1/heff2 and thus behaves like 1/n2 and decreases with n.

n=1 is the first guess for ordinary atoms but just a guess. The claim of Randell Mills is that hydrogen has exotic ground states with larger binding energy. A closer examination suggests n=n0=6 for ordinary states of atoms. The exotic states would have n<6 and therefore higher binding energy scale (see this and this).

This leads to a model of biocatalysis in which reacting molecules contain dark hydrogen atoms with non-standard value of n larger than usual so that their binding energy is lower. When dark atom or electron becomes ordinary binding energy is liberated and can kick molecules over the potential wall otherwise preventing the reaction to occur. After that the energy is returned and the atom becomes dark again. Dark atoms would be catalytic switches. Metabolic energy feed would take care of creating the dark states. In fact, heff/h=n serves as a kind of intelligence quotient for a system in TGD inspired theory of consciousness.

Are the mysteriously dissappearing valence electrons in rare earth metals dark?

Could the heating of the rare earth atoms transform some valence electrons to dark electrons with heff/h=n larger than for ordinary atom? The natural guess is that thermal energy kicks the valence electron to a dark orbital with a smaller binding energy? The prediction is that there should be critical temperatures behaving like Tcr= T0(1- n20/n2). Also transitions between different dark states are possible. These transitions might be also induced by irradiating the atom with photons with the transition energy between different dark states having same quantum numbers.

ORMEs as one manner to end up with dark mattter in TGD sense

I ended up to the discovery of dark matter hierarchy and eventually to adelic physics, where heff/h=n has number theoretic interpretation along several roads starting from anomalous findings. One of these roads began from the claim about the existence of strange form of matter by David Hudson. Hudson associated with these strange materials several names: White Gold, monoatomic elements, and ORMEs (orbitally re-arranged metallic elements). Any colleague without suicidical tendencies would of course refuse to touch anything like White Gold even with a 10 meter long pole but I had nothing to lose anymore.

My question was how to explain these elements if they are actually real. If all valence electrons of this kind of element are dark these element have effectively full electron shells as far as ordinary electrons are considered and behave like noble gases with charge in short scales and do not form molecules. Therefore "monoatomic element" is justified. Of course, only the electrons in the outermost shell could be dark and in this case the element would behave chemically and also look like an atom with smaller atomic number Z. So called Rydberg atoms for which valence electrons are believed to reside at very large orbitals could be actually dark atoms in the proposed sense.

Obviously also ORME is an appropriate term since some valence electrons have re-arranged orbitally. White Gold would be Gold but with dark valence electron. The electron configuration of Gold is [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s1. There is single unpaired electron with principal quantum number m=6 and this would be dark for White Gold and chemically like Platinum (Pt), which indeed has white color.

Biologically important ions as analogs of ORMEs

In TGD inspired biology the biologically important atoms H+, Li+, Na+, K+, Ca++, Mg++ are assumed to be dark in the proposed sense. But I have not specified darkness in precise sense. Could these ions have dark valence electrons with scaled up Compton length and forming macroscopic quantum phases. For instance, Cooper pairs could become possible and make possible high Tc superconductivity with members of Cooper pair at parallel flux tubes. The earlier proposal that dark hydrogen atoms make possible biocatalysis generalizes: at higher evolutionary levels also the heavier dark atoms behaving like noble gases would become important in bio-catalysis. Interestingly, Rydberg atoms have been proposed to be important for bio-catalysis.

To sum up, if TGD view is correct , an entire spectroscopy of dark atoms and partially dark molecules is waiting to be discovered and irradiation by light with energies corresponding to excitation energies of dark states could be the manner to generate dark atomic matter. Huge progress in quantum biology could also take place. But are colleagues mature enough to check whether TGD view is correct?

See the article Mysteriously disappearing valence electrons of rare Earth metals and hierarchy of Planck constants or the chapter Quantum criticality and dark matter of "Hyperfinite factors, p-adic length scale hypothesis, and dark matter hierarchy".

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Thursday, November 02, 2017

Dark nucleosynthesis and stellar evolution

The temperature of the solar core is rather near to the scale of dark nuclear binding energy. This co-incidence inspires interesting questions about the dark nucleosynthesis in the stellar evolution.

1. Some questions inspired by a numerical co-incidence

The temperature at solar core is about T=1.5× 107 K corresponding to the thermal energy E= 3T/2= 2.25 keV obtained by a scaling factor 2-11 energy ∼ 5 MeV, which is the binding energy scale for the ordinary nuclei. That this temperature corresponds to the binding energy scale of dark nuclei might not be an accident.

That the temperature in the stellar core is of the same order of magnitude as dark nuclear binding energy is a highly intriguing finding and encourages to ask whether dark nuclear fusion could be the key step in the production of ordinary nuclei and what is the relation of dark nucleosynthesis to ordinary nucleosynthesis.

  1. Could dark nucleosynthesis occur also pre-stellar evolution and thus proceed differently from the usual p-p-cycle involving fusion processes? The resulting ordinary nuclei would undergo only ordinary nuclear reactions and decouple from the dark dynamics. This does not exclude the possibility that the resulting ordinary nuclei form nuclei of nuclei with dark protons: this seems to occur also in nuclear transmutations.

  2. There would be two competing effects. The higher the temperature, the less stable dark nuclei and the longer the dark nuclear strings. At lower temperatures dark nuclei are more stable but transform to ordinary nuclei decoupling from the dark dynamics. The liberated nuclear binding energy however raises the temperature and makes dark nuclei less stable so that the production of ordinary nuclei in this manner would slow down.

    At what stage ordinary nuclear reactions begin to dominate over dark nucleosynthesis? The conservative and plausible looking view is that p-p cycle is indeed at work in stellar cores and has replaced dark nucleosynthesis when dark nuclei became thermally unstable.

    The standard view is that solar temperature makes possible tunnelling through Coulomb wall and thus ordinary nuclear reactions. The temperature is few keVs and surprisingly small as compared to the height of Coulomb wall Ec∼ Z1Z2e2/L, L the size of the nucleus. There are good reasons to believe that this picture is correct. The co-incidence of the two temperatures would make possible the transition from dark nucleosynthesis to ordinary nucleosynthesis.

  3. What about dark nuclear reactions? Could they occur as reconnections of long magnetic flux tubes? For ordinary nuclei reconnections of short flux tubes would take place (recall the view about nuclei as two-sheeted structures). For ordinary nuclear the reactions at energies so low that the phase transition to dark phase (somewhat analogous to the de-confinement phase transition in QCD) is not energetically possible, the reactions would occur in nuclear scale.

  4. An interesting question is whether dark nucleosynthesis could provide a new manner to achieve ordinary nuclear fusion in laboratory. The system would heat itself to the temperatures required by ordinary nuclear fusion as it would do also during the pre-stellar evolution and when nuclear reactor is formed spontaneously (Oklo reactor).

2. Could dark nucleosynthesis affect the views about stellar evolution?

The presence of dark nucleosynthesis could modify the views about star formation, in particular about energy production in protostars and pre-main-sequence stars (PMS) following protostars in stellar evolution.

In protostars and PMSs the temperature is not yet high enough for the burning of hydrogen to 4He, and according to the standard model the energy radiated by the star consists of the gravitational energy liberated during the gravitational contraction. Could dark nucleosynthesis provide a new mechanism of energy production and could this energy be transferred from the protostar/PMS as dark energy along dark magnetic flux tubes?

Can one imagine any empirical evidence for the presence of dark nucleosynthesis in protostars and PMSs?

  1. The energy and matter produced in dark nucleosynthesis could partially leak out along dark magnetic flux tubes and give rise to astrophysical jets. Astrophysical jets indeed accompany protostars and the associated planetary and bipolar nebulae as well as PMSs (T Tauri stars and Herbig-Haro objects). The jets along flux tubes associated with hot spots at which dark nucleosynthesis would take place could provide also a mechanism for the transfer of angular momentum from the protostar/PMS.

  2. Spectroscopic observations of dense cores (protostar) not yet containing stars indicate that contraction occurs but the predicted expansion of the contracting region has not been observed (see this). The energy production by dark nucleosynthesis could increase pressure and slow down and even prevent the expansion of the contracting region.

How dark nucleosynthesis could affect the evolution of protostars and PMSs?
  1. In standard model the formation of accretion disk could be understood in terms of angular momentum conservation: spherical distribution of matter transforms to a planar one does not require large changes for the velocities tangential to the plane. The mechanism for how the matter from accretion disk spirals into star is however poorly understood.

  2. The TGD inspired model for galaxy formation suggests that the core region of the protostar is associated with a highly knotted cosmic string ("pearl in a necklace") forming the dark core of galaxy with constant density of dark matter (see this). The dark matter from the cosmic string would have leaked out from the cosmic string and transformed to ordinary matter already before the annihilation of quarks and antiquarks. The CP, P, and T asymmetries predicted by twistor lift of TGD would predict that there is a net quark (antiquark) number outside (inside) the cosmic string. The locally axisymmetric gravitational potential of the cosmic string would favour disk like rather than spherically symmetric matter distribution as the initial distribution of the baryonic matter formed in the hadronization from the quarks left from the annihilation.

    Quantitative model is needed to see whether dark fusion could contribute significantly to the energy production in protostars and PMSs and affect their evolution. The nuclear binding energy liberated in dark fusion would slow down the gravitational contraction and increase the duration of protostar and PMS phases. In standard model PMS phase is possible for masses varying from 2 to 8 solar masses. Dark nucleosynthesis could increase the upper bound for the mass of PMS from that predicted by the standard model.

See the article Cold fusion again or the chapter of "Hyper-finite factors, p-adic length scale hypothesis, and dark matter hierarchy" with the same title. See also the article Cold fusion, low energy nuclear reactions, or dark nuclear synthesis?.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Sunday, October 29, 2017

Summary of the model of dark nucleosynthesis

The books of Steven Krivit (see Hacking the atom, Fusion fiasco, and Lost history ) have been of enormous help in polishing the details of the model of dark nucleosynthesis explaining the mysterious aspects of what has been called cold fusion or LENR (Low energy nuclear reactions). Here

Summary of the model of dark nucleosynthesis model

Recall the basic ideas behind dark nucleosynthesis.

  1. Dark nuclei are produced as dark proton sequences at magnetic flux tubes with distance between dark protons with heff/h= 211 (approximately proton/electron mass ratio) very near to electron Compton length. This makes possible formation of at least light elements when dark nuclei transform to ordinary ones and liberate almost entire nuclear binding energy.

  2. Also more complex nuclei can form as nuclei of nuclei from ordinary nuclei and sequences of dark protons are at magnetic flux tubes. In particular, the basic rule (A,Z)→ (A+1,Z+1) of Widom-Larsen model is satisfied although dark beta decays would break this rule.

    In this case the transformation to ordinary nuclei produces heavier nuclei, even those heavier than Fe. This mechanism could make possible the production of heavy nuclei outside stellar interiors. Also dark beta decays can be considered. They would be fast: the idea is that the Compton length of weak bosons is scaled up and within the region of size scale of Compton length weak interactions have essentially the same strength as electromagnetic interactions so that weak decays are fast and led to dark isotopes stable against weak interactions.

  3. The transformation of dark nuclei to ordinary nuclei liberates almost all nuclear binding energy. This energy could induce the fission of the daughter nucleus and emission of neurons causing the decay of ordinary nuclei, at least those heavier than Fe.

  4. Also the dark weak process e-+p→ n+ν liberating energy of order electron mass could kick out neutron from dark nucleus. This process would be TGD counterpart for the corresponding process in WL but having very different physical interpretation. This mechanism could explain production of neutrons which is by about 8 orders slower than in cold fusion model.

  5. The magnetic flux tubes containing dark nuclei form a positively charged system attracted by negatively charged surfaces. The cathode is where the electrons usually flow to. The electrons can generate negative surface charge, which attracts the flux tubes so that flux tubes end up to the cathode surface and dark ions can enter to the surface. Also ordinary nuclei from the cathode could enter temporarily to the flux tube so that more complex dark nuclei consisting of dark protons and nuclei are formed. Dark nuclei can also leak out of the system if the flux tube ends to some negatively charged surface other than cathode.

The findings described in the the books of Krivit, in particular the production of neutrons and tritium, allow to sharpen the view about dark nucleosynthesis.
  1. The simplest view about dark nucleosynthesis is as a formation of dark proton sequences in which some dark protons transform by beta decay (emission of positron) to neutrons. The objection is that this decay is kinematically forbidden if the masses of dark proton and neutron are same as those of ordinary proton and neutron (n-p mass difference is 1.3 MeV). Only dark proton sequences would be stable.

    Situation changes if also n-p mass difference scales by factor 2-11. The spectra of dark and ordinary nuclei would be essentially identical. For scaled down n-p mass difference, neutrons would be produced most naturally in the process e-+p→ n+ν for dark nuclei proceeding via dark weak interactions. The dark neutron would receive a large recoil energy about me≈ .5 MeV and dark nucleus would decay. The electrons inducing the neutron emission could come from the negatively charged surface of cathode after the flux tube has attached to it. The rate for e-+p→ n+ν is very law for ordinary weak Planck constant. The ratio n/T ∼ 10-8 allows to deduce information about heff/h: a good guess is that dark weak process is in question.

  2. Tritium and other isotopes would be produced as several magnetic flux tubes connect to a negatively charged hot spot of cathode. A reasonable assumption is that the ordinary binding energy gives rise to an excited state of the ordinary nucleus. This can induce the fission of the final state nucleus and also neutrons can be produced. Also scaled down variants of pions can be emitted, in particular the pion with mass of 17 MeV (see this)

  3. The ordinary nuclear binding energy minus the n-p mass difference 1.3 MeV multiplied by the number of neutrons would be released in the transformation of dark nuclei to ordinary ones. The table below gives the total binding energies and liberated energies for some lightest stable nuclei.


    The ordinary nuclear binding energies EB for light nuclei and the energies Δ E liberated in dark → ordinary transition.
    Element 4He 3H T D
    EB/MeV 28.28 7.72 8.48 2.57
    Δ E/MeV 25.70 6.41 5.8 1.27


    Gamma rays are not wanted in the final state. For instance, for the transformation of dark 4He to ordinary one, the liberated energy would be about 25.7 MeV. If the final state nucleus is in excited state unstable against fission, the binding energy can go to the kinetic energy of the final state and not gamma ray pairs are observed. If two 17 MeV pions π113 are emitted the other one or both must be on mass shell and decay weakly. The decay of off-mass π113 could however proceed via dark weak interactions and be fast so that the rate for this process could be considerably faster than for the emission of two gamma rays.

The relationship of dark nucleosynthesis to ordinary nucleosynthesis

One can raise interesting questions about the relation of dark nucleosynthesis to ordinary nucleosynthesis.

  1. The temperature at solar core is about 1.5× 107 K corresponding to energy about 2.25 keV. This temperature is obtained by scaling factor 2-11 from 5 MeV which is binding energy scale for ordinary nuclei. That this temperature corresponds to the binding energy scale of dark nuclei might not be an accident.

    That the temperature in the stellar core is of the same order of magnitude as dark nuclear binding energy is a highly intriguing finding and encourages to ask whether dark nuclear fusion could be the key step in the production of ordinary nuclei.

    Could dark nucleosynthesis in this sense occur also pre-stellar evolution and thus proceed differently from the usual p-p-cycle involving fusion processes? The resulting ordinary nuclei would undergo only ordinary nuclear reactions and decouple from the dark dynamics. This does not exclude the possibility that the resulting ordinary nuclei form nuclei of nuclei with dark protons: this seems to occur also in nuclear transmutations.

  2. There would be two competing effects. The higher the temperature, the less stable dark nuclei and the longer the dark nuclear strings. At lower temperatures dark nuclei are more stable but transform to ordinary nuclei decoupling from the dark dynamics. The liberated nuclear binding energy however raises the temperature and makes dark nuclei less stable so that the production of ordinary nuclei in this manner would slow down.

    At what stage ordinary nuclear reactions begin to dominate over dark nucleosynthesis? The conservative and plausible looking view is that p-p cycle is indeed at work in stellar cores and has replaced dark nucleosynthesis when dark nuclei became thermally unstable.

    The standard view is that solar temperature makes possible tunnelling through Coulomb wall and thus ordinary nuclear reactions. The temperature is few keVs and surprisingly small as compared to the height of Coulomb wall Ec∼ Z1Z2e2/L, L the size of the nucleus. There are good reasons to believe that this picture is correct. The co-incidence of the two temperatures would make possible the transition from dark nucleosynthesis to ordinary nucleosynthesis.

  3. What about dark nuclear reactions? Could they occur as reconnections of long magnetic flux tubes? For ordinary nuclei reconnections of short flux tubes would take place (recall the view about nuclei as two-sheeted structures). For ordinary nuclear the reactions at energies so low that the phase transition to dark phase (somewhat analogous to the de-confinement phase transition in QCD) is not energetically possible, the reactions would occur in nuclear scale.

  4. An interesting question is whether dark nucleosynthesis could provide a new manner to achieve ordinary nuclear fusion in laboratory. The system would heat itself to the temperatures required by ordinary nuclear fusion as it would do also during the pre-stellar evolution and when nuclear reactor is formed spontaneously (see Oklo reactor.

This is only rough overall view and it would be unrealistic to regard it as final one: one can indeed imagine variations. But even its recent rough form it seems to be able explain all the weird looking aspects of CF/LENR/dark nucleosynthesis. To pick up one particular interesting question: how significantly dark nucleosynthesis could contribute to the generation of elements heavier than Fe (and also lighter elements)? It is assumed that the heavier elements are generated in so called r-process involving creation of neutrons fusing with nuclei. One option is that r-process accompanies supernova explosions but SN1987A did not provide support for this hypothesis: the characteristic em radiation accompanying r-process was not detected. Quite recently the observation of gravitational waves from the fusion of two neutron stars generated also visible radiation, so called kilonova (see this), and the radiation accompanying r-process was reported. Therefore this kind of collisions generate at least part of the heavier elements.

See the article Cold fusion again or the chapter of "Hyper-finite factors, p-adic length scale hypothesis, and dark matter hierarchy" with the same title. See also the article Cold fusion, low energy nuclear reactions, or dark nuclear synthesis?.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Thursday, October 26, 2017

Dark Matter Day and my wish for Christmas present

October 31st is Dark Matter Day. This is a natural continuation for my 67th birth day festivities at October 30;-).

Maybe the date of dark matter day involves symbolism. Also for a century ago the world was in critical state. Atomic physics, nuclear physics, and quantum theory were developing and revolutionizing the world view. There was a lot of political turmoil. October revolution in Russia took precisely 100 years ago October 25. Maybe also the results deduced from GW170817 and published during October motivated the choice of the date. The results eliminate large class of models trying to explain dark matter without dark matter.

Also I have spent a lot of time in developing a vision about dark matter as heff=n×h phases of ordinary matter. Vision involves magnetic flux tubes carrying dark matter and would apply in all scales. Also in quantum biology dark matter would play a key role. Galactic dark matter and also dark energy would reside at cosmic strings: this predicts the velocity spectrum of distant stars without any further assumptions. One also ends up to a rather detailed fractal vision about formation of galaxies and larger scale structures in terms of cosmic strings. Galaxies would be along long cosmic strings like pearls in necklace: these linear structures have been observed long time ago. Pearls could be knotted regions of this long cosmic string having constant density of dark matter indeed observed in galactic cores.

A side comment about GW170817 is in order. Neutrinos were not observed. A possible explanation inspired by SN1987A is that they move along different space-time sheets than photons and gravitational radiation. Estimating from SN1987A time lag between gamma rays and neutrinos and from the distances of SN1987A and GW170817 and assuming sama Δ c/c, one gets the first estimate that the lag is 118 days. The neutrinos would travel 4 months (of lenth 30 days) -2 days. For details see this.

If I managed to count correctly from my web calendar, the neutrino signal should arrive at December 14. It would be a nice Christmas present but is there any hope that any astrophysicists believes in Santa Claus? Or who knows: perhaps astrophysicists remember SN1987A and are eagerly waiting for the Christmas present!

October by the way "Lokakuu" in finnish. "Loka" translates to "Dirt". As an academic loser whose work fails to satisfy all imaginable criteria for science (as a couple of finnish colleagues so eloquently expressed it) I sometimes feel that my birth month was an omen. The next month is "Marraskuu". "Marras" translates to "Death"! But then comes "Joulukuu": "Joulu" translates to "Christmas". I keep fingers crossed and try to behave and I have already written to Santa Claus a letter, the contents of which should be clear from above.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

The lost history from TGD perspective

The third volume in " Explorations in Nuclear Research" is about lost history (see this): roughly the period 1910-1930 during which there was not yet any sharp distinction between chemistry and nuclear physics. After 1930 the experimentation became active using radioactive sources and particle accelerators making possible nuclear reactions. The lost history suggests that the methods used determine to unexpected degree what findings are accepted as real. After 1940 the hot fusion as possible manner to liberate nuclear energy became a topic of study but we are still waiting the commercial applications.

One can say that the findings about nuclear transmutations during period 1912-1927 became lost history although most of these findings were published in highly respected journals and received also media attention. Interested reader can find in the book detailed stories about persons involved. This allows also to peek to the kitchen side of science and to realize that the written history can contain surprising misidentifications of the milestones in the history of science. Author discusses in detail an example about this: Rutherford is generally regarded as tje discover of the first nuclear transmutation but even Rutherford himself did not make this claim.

It is interesting to look what the vision about the anomalous nuclear effects based on dark nucleosynthesis can say about the lost history and whether these findings can provide new information to tighten up the TGD based model, which is only qualitative. Therefore I go through the list given in the beginning of book from the perspective of dark nucleosynthesis.

Before continuing it is good to recall the first the basic ideas behind dark nucleosynthesis.

  1. Dark nuclei are produced as dark proton sequences at magnetic flux tubes with distance between dark protons with heff= 211 (approximately proton/electron mass ratio) very near to electron Compton length. This makes possible formation of at least light elements when dark nuclei transform to ordinary ones and liberate almost entire nuclear binding energy.

  2. Also more complex nuclei can from in which ordinary nuclei and sequences of dark protons are at magnetic flux tubes. In particular, the basic rule (A,Z)→ (A+1,Z+1) of Widom-Larsen model is satisfied although dark beta decays would break this rule.

    In this case the transformation to ordinary nuclei produces heavier nuclei, even those heavier than Fe. This mechanism could actually make possible production of heavy nuclei outsider stellar interiors. Also dark beta decays can be considered. They would be fast: the idea is that the Compton length of weak bosons is scaled up and within the region of size scale of Compton length weak interactions have essentially the same strength as electromagnetic interactions so that weak decays are fast and led to dark isotopes stable against weak interactions.

  3. The transformation of dark nuclei to ordinary nuclei liberates almost all nuclear binding energy. The transformation liberates large nuclear energy, which could lead to a decay of the daughter nucleus and emission of neurons causing e the decay of ordinary nuclei, at least those heavier than Fe.

    Remark: Interestingly, the dark binding energy is of order few keV and happens to be of the same order of magnitude as the thermal energy of nuclei in the interior of Sun. Could dark nuclear physics play some role in the nuclear fusion in solar core?

  4. The magnetic flux tubes containing dark nuclei form a positively charged system attracted by negatively charged surfaces. The cathode is where the electrons usually flow to. The electrons can generate negative surface charge, which attracts the flux tubes so that flux tubes end up to the cathode surface and dark ions can enter to the surface. Also ordinary nuclei from the cathode could enter temporarily to the flux tube so that more complex dark nuclei consisting of dark protons and nuclei are formed. Dark nuclei can also leak out of the system if the flux tube ends to some negatively charged surface other than cathode.

Production of noble gases and tritium

During period 1912-1914 several independent scientists discovered the production of noble gases 4He, neon (Ne), and argon (Ar) using high voltage electrical discharges in vacuum or r through hydrogen gas at low pressures in cathode-ray tubes. Also an unidentified element with mass number 3 was discovered. It was later identified as tritium. Two of the researchers were Nobel laureates. 1922 two researchers in University of Chicago reported production of 4He. Sir Joseph John Thomson explained the production of 4He using occlusion hypothesis. In understand occlusion as a contamination of 4He to the tungsten wire. The question is why not also hydrogen.

Why noble gases would have been produced? It is known that noble gases tend to stay near surfaces. In one experiment it was found that 4He production stopped after few days, maybe kind of saturation was achieved. This suggests that isotopes with relatively high mass numbers were produced from dark proton sequences (possibly containing also neutrons resulting in the dark weak decays). The resulting noble gases were caught near the electrodes and therefore only their production was observed.

Production of 4He in experiments of Wendle and Irion

In 1222 Wendle and Irion published results from the study of exploding current wires. Their arrangement involved high voltage of about 3× 104 V and di-electric breakdown through air gap between the electrodes producing sudden current peak in a current wire made of tungsten (W with (Z,A)=(74,186) for the most abundant isotope) at temperature about T=2× 104 C, which corresponds to a thermal energy 3kT/2 of about 3 eV. Production of 4He was detected.

Remark: The temperature at solar core is about 1.5× 107 K corresponding to energy about 2.25 keV and 3 orders of magnitude higher than the temperature used. This temperature is obtained by scaling factor 2-11 from 5 MeV which is binding energy scale for ordinary nuclei. That this temperature corresponds to the binding energy scale of dark nuclei might not be an accident.

The interpretation of the experimentalists was that the observed 4He was from the decay of tungsten in the hot temperature making it unstable. This explanation is of course not consistent with what we known at about nuclear physics. No error in the experimental procedure was found. Three trials to replicate the experiment of Wendle and Irion were made with a negative result. The book discusses these attempts in detail and demonstrates that they were not faithful to the original experimental arrangement.

Rutherford explained the production of 4He in terms of 4He occlusion hypothesis of Thomson. In the explosion the 4He contaminate would have liberated. But why just helium contamination, why not hydrogen? By above argument one could argue that 4He as noble gas could indeed form stable contaminates.

80 yeas later Urutskoev repeated the experiment with exploding wires and observed besides 4He also other isotopes. The experiments of Urutskoev demonstrated that there are 4 peaks for the production rate of elements as function of atomic number Z. Furthermore, the amount of mass assignable to the transmuted elements is nearly the mass lost from the cathode. Hence also cathode nuclei should end up to flux tubes.

How dark nucleosynthesis could explain the findings? The simplest model relies on a modification of the occlusion hypothesis: a hydrogen contaminate was present and the formation of dark nuclei from the protons of hydrogen at flux tubes took place in the exploding wire. The nuclei of noble gases tended to remain in the system and 4He was observed.

Production of Au and Pt in arc discharges in Mercury vapor

In 1924 German chemist Miethe, better known as the discoverer of 3-color photography found trace amount of Gold (Au) and possibly Platinum (Pt) in Mercury (Hg) vapor photography lamp. Scientists in Amsterdam repeated the experiment but using lead (Pb) instead of Hg and observed production of Hg and Thallium (Tl). The same year a prominent Japanese scientist Nagaoka reported production of Au and something having the appearance of Pt. Nagaoka used a an electric arc discharge between tungsten (W) electrodes bathed in dielectric liquid "laced" with liquid Hg.

The nuclear charges and atomic weights for isotopes involved are given in the table below.

The nuclear charge and mass number (Z,A) for the most abundant isotopes of W, Pt, Au,Hg, Tl and Pb.

Element W Pt Au Hg Tl Pb
(Z,A) (74,186) (78,195) (79,197) (80,202) (81,205) (82,208)

Could dark nucleosynthesis explain the observations? Two mechanisms for producing heavier nuclei relying one the formation of dark nuclei from the nuclei of the electrode metal and dark protons and their subsequent transformation to ordinary nuclei.

  1. Dark nuclei are formed from the metal associated with cathode and dark protons. In Nagaoka's experiment this metal is W with (Z,A)=(74,186). Assuming that also dark beta decays are possible this would lead to the generation of heavier beta stable elements Au with (Z,A)= (79,197) or their stable isotopes. Unfortunately, I could not find what the electrode metal used in the experiments of Miethe was.

  2. In the experiments of Miethe the nuclei of Hg transmuted to Au ((80,202)→ (79,197)) and to Pt ((80,202)→ (78,195)). In Amsterdam experiment of Pb transmuted to Hg ((82,208) → (80,202)) and Tl
    ((82,208) → (81,205)). This suggests that the nuclei resulted in the decay of Hg (Pb) induced by the nuclear binding energy liberated in the transformation of dark nuclei formed from the nuclei of cathode metal and dark protons to ordinary nuclei. Part of the liberated binding energy could have induced the fission of the dark nuclei. The decay of dark nuclei could have also liberated neutrons absorbed by the Hg (Pb) nuclei and inducing the decay to lighter nuclei. Thus also the analog of r-process could have been present.

Paneth and Peters' H→ 4He transmutation

In 1926 German chemists Paneth and Peters pumped hydrogen gas into a chamber with finely divided palladium powder and reported the transmutation of hydrogen to helium. This experiment resembles the "cold fusion" experiment of Pons and Fleischman in 1989. The explanation would be the formation of dark 4He nuclei consisting of dark protons and transformation to ordinary 4He nuclei.

See the chapter Cold fusion again or the article with the same title. See also the article Cold fusion, low energy nuclear reactions, or dark nuclear synthesis?.

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.

Wednesday, October 25, 2017

Some TGD inspired comments related to quantum measurement theory

In the following some TGD inspired comments on quantum measurement theory inspired by FB discussions.

Does the analog of repeated second quantization take place at the level of WCW?

The world of classical worlds (WCW) is the basic structure of quantum TGD. It can be said to be the space of 3-surfaces consisting of pairs of (not necessarily connected 3-surfaces) at the boundaries of causal diamond (CD) and connected by a not necessarily connected 4-surface. 4- surface defines the interaction between the states associated with the 3-surfaces. The state associated with given 3-surface correspond to WCW spinor and one has modes of WCW spinor fields. WCW decomposes to sub-WCWs assignable to CDs and effectively the universe reduces to CD.

The key idea is that the WCW spinor fields are purely classical spinor fields. No second quantization is performed for them. Second quantization of induced spinor fields at space-time level is however carried out and gamma matrices of
WCW anticommuting to its Kähler metric are linear combinations of fermionic oscillator operators.

The classicality of WCW spinor fields looks somewhat problematic.

  1. The classicality of WCW spinor fields has implications for quantum measurement theory. State function reduction involves reduction of entanglement between systems at different points of space-time and therefore also many-particle states and second quantization are involved. However, second quantization does not take place at the level of WCW and it seems that entanglement between two 3-surfaces is not possible. Therefore measurements at WCW level should correspond to localizations not involving a reduction of entanglement. Measurements could not be interpreted as measurements of the universal observable defined by density matrix of subsystem. This looks problematic.

  2. At the space-time level second quantization is counterpart for the formation of many-particle states. Particles are pointlike and one of the outcomes is entanglement between point like particles. Since the point of WCW is essentially point-like particle extended to 3-surface, one would expect that second quantization in some sense takes place at the level of WCW although the theory is formally purely classical.

  3. Also the hierarchy of infinite primes suggests an infinite hierarchy of second quantizations. Could it have counterpart at the level of WCW: can WCW spinor field be second quantized and classical simultaneously?

Could the counterpart for the hierarchy of infinite primes and second quantization be realized automatically at WCW level? One can indeed interpret the measurements at WCW as either localizations or as reductions of entanglement between states associated with different points of WCW. The point is that the disjoint union of 3-surfaces X3 and Y3 can be regarded either as a pair (X3,Y3) of 3-surfaces in WCW× WCW or as a 3-surface Z3=X3 ∪ Y3 ⊂ WCW. The general identity behind this duality WCW= WCW× WCW= ...= WCWn =... .

One could think the situation in terms of (X3,Y3) ∈ WCW× WCW in which case one can speak of entanglement between WCW spinor modes associated with X3 and Y3 reduced by the measurement of density matrix. Second interpretation as a localization of wave function of Z3=X3∪ Y3∈ WCW.

About the notion of observable

In ordinary quantum theory observables are hermitian operators and their eigenvalues representing the values of observables are real.

In TGD using M4× CP2 picture the gauge coupling strengths are complex and therefore also classical Noether charges are complex. This should be the case also for quantum observables. Total quantum numbers could be still real but single particle quantum numbers complex. I have proposed that this is true for conformal weights and talked about conformal confinement.

Also in ordinary twistor approach virtual particles are on mass shell and thus massless but complex. Same is expected in TGD for 8-momenta so that one obtains particles massive in 4-D sense but massless in 8-D sense: this is absolutely crucial for the generalization of twistor approach to 8-D context. Virtual momenta could be massless in 8-D sense but complex but total momenta would be real. This would apply to all quantal charges, which for Cartan algebra are identical with classical Noether charges.

I learned also a very interesting fact about normal operators for which operator and its hermitian conjugate commute. As the author mentions, this trivial fact has remained unknown even for professionals. One can assign to a normal operator real and imaginary parts, which are commuting as hermitian operators so that - according to the standrd quantum measurement theory - they can be measured simultaneously.

For instance, complex values of various charge predicted by twistor lift of TGD would therefore in principle be allowed even without the assumption that the total charges are real ( total charges as hermitian operators). Combining the two ideas one would have that single particle charges are complex and represented by normal operators and total charges are real and represented by hermitian operators.

What does amplification process in quantum measurement mean?

Quantum measurement involves an amplification process amplifying the outcome of state function reduction at single particle level to a macroscopic effect. This aspect of quantum measurement theory is poorly understood at fundamental level and is usually though to be unessential concerning the calculation of the predictions of quantum theory.

The intuitive expectation is that the amplification is made possible by criticality - I would suggest quantum criticality - and involves the analog of a phase transition generated by seed. This is like the change for a direction of single spin in magnet at criticality inducing change of the magnetization direction.

Quantum criticality involves long range fluctuations and correlations for which heff/h=n serves as a mathematical description in terms of adelic physics in TGD framework. Long range correlations would make possible the classical macroscopic state characterizing the pointer. This large heff/h=n aspect would naturally correspond to the presence of intellligent observer: heff indeed closely relates to the description of not only sensory but also cognitive aspects of existence and has number theoretic interpretation as a measure for what might be called IQ of the system.

If this is tge case, one cannot build proper quantum measurement theory in the framework of standard quantum mechanics, which is unable to say anything interesting about cognition and observer. A theory of consciousness is required for this and ZEO based quantum measurement theory is also a theory of consciousness.

Zero energy ontology and Afshar experiment

Afshar experiment challenges Copenhagen and many-universe interpretations and it is interesting to look how it can be understood in zero energy ontology (ZEO).

Consider first the experimental arrangement of Afshar.

  1. A modification of double slit experiment is in question. One replaces the screen with a lense, which reflects from slit 1 to detector 1' and from slit 2 to detector 2'. Lense thus selects the photon path that is the slit through which the photon came.

    The detected pattern of clicks at detectors consists of two peaks: this means particle behavior. One can say that at single photon level either detector/path/slit is selected.

  2. One adds a grid of obstacles to the nodes (zeros) of the interference pattern at imagined screen behind the lense. The photons entering the points of grid are absorbed. Since grid is at nodes of the interference pattern this does not affect the detected pattern, when both slits are open but affects the pattern when either slit is closed (grids points are not nodes anymore). This in turn means wave like behavior. This conflicts with principle of complementary stating that either of these behaviors is realized but not both.

Consider the analysis of the situation in the usual positive energy ontology and assuming that state function reduction occurs at the detectors.
  1. Photon wave function Ψ in the region between slits and lense is superposition of two parts: Ψ= Ψ12 with Ψi assignable to slit i=1,2. The lense guides Ψ1 to detector 1 and Ψ2 to detector 2. State function reduction occurs and Ψ is projected to Ψ1 or Ψ2. Either detector 1 or 2 fires and photon path is selected.

    It however seems that state function reduction - choice of the path/slit - can occur only in the region in front of the grid. In the region between slits and grid one should still have Ψ1+Ψ2 since for Ψi the grid would have effect to the outcome. This effect is however absent. This does not fit with Copenhagen interpretation demanding that the path of photon is selected also behind the grid. This is the problem.

  2. What about the interpretation in zero energy ontology (ZEO)? After state function reduction - detection at detector 1 say - the time evolution between opposite boundaries of CD is relaced with a time reversed one. To explain the observations of Afshar (no deterioration of the pattern at detector caused by grid), one must have time evolution in which the photons coming from the detectors in reversed time direction have wave functions which vanish at the points of grid. This determines the "initial" values for the reversed time evolution: they are most naturally at grid so that grid corresponds naturally to a surface at boundary of CD in question. This is of course not the only choice since one can use the determinism of classical field equations to choose the intersection with CD differently. If time reversal symmetry holds true, the final state in geometric past corresponds to a signal coming from slit 1 (in the case considered as example). There would be no problem! Afshar experiment would be the first laboratory experiment selecting between Copenhagen interpretation and ZEO based quantum measurement theory.

See the article Some comments related to quantum measurement theory according to TGD or the chapter About the nature of time of "TGD inspired theory of consciousness".

For a summary of earlier postings see Latest progress in TGD.

Articles and other material related to TGD.